The Afsluitdijk

The Afsluitdijk (English: Enclosure Dam) is a major causeway in the Netherlands. It is damming off the Waddenzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea, from the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer.

It was constructed between 1927 and 1933 and runs over a length of 32 kilometres (20 miles) and a width of 90 m, at an initial height of 7.25 m above sea-level.

The Afsluitdijk is a fundamental part of the larger Zuiderzee Works, a manmade system of dams, land reclamation and water drainage works, the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century. Its main purposes are to improve flood protection and create additional land for agriculture.

Beside the dam itself is also the necessary construction of two complexes of shipping locks and discharge sluices at both ends of the dike. The complex at Den Oever includes the Stevin lock and 3 series of 5 sluices for discharging the IJsselmeer into the Wadden Sea. The other complex at Kornwerderzand is composed of the Lorentz locks and 2 series of 5 sluices. In total there are 25 discharge sluices. It is necessary to routinely discharge water from the lake since it is continually fed by rivers and stream and polders draining their water into the IJsselmeer.

The Afsluitdijk is protecting the Netherlands from the sea for more than eighty years. However, the dyke no longer meets the current requirements for flood protection.

Rijkswaterstaat is therefore going to reinforce the Afsluitdijk. The body of the dyke will be widened and raised by about 2 metres and the cladding on the outer side will be replaced. Concrete blocks will be placed over the existing basalt blocks on the lower slope. These ‘Levvel blocks’ weigh 6,500 kilograms each and have a wave retardant effect. Because of their symmetry and the regular way they are positioned, the blocks have a tranquil appearance that reinforces the austere and autonomous character of the dyke. Every block will be GPS chipped, making them easy to inspect and maintain.

The sluices at Den Oever and Kornwerderzand will be reinforced and flood locks will be built in front of the navigation locks on the Wadden Sea side. These storm surge barriers can be closed in extreme weather conditions to protect the navigation locks from the force of the water.

To allow more water to be discharged from the IJsselmeer into the Wadden Sea, extra sluices and a pumping station will be built at Den Oever. The fish friendly pumps are low energy and are powered by renewable energy from solar panels on the Afsluitdijk.

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Welcome to Delta Works Online

The site is one of the biggest and most complete online resources of information about the Delta Works and water management in the Netherlands.

The Delta Works are viewable in many ways on our website. Through the use of photographs, animations, audio, video and virtual tours we try to give you a complete picture of the enormous scale of all the different works. The site is ideal as a resource for your thesis, or to show your family and friends (possibly abroad) this small marvel of Dutch Water Engineering.

Apart from informaiton on the North Sea flood of 1953, the building of the deltaworks and water management in the Netherlands, the site also covers related topics. These topics elaborate on the relation between water management, nature and recreation.

Since 2004 we have worked very hard on DeltaWorks Online. Over 40 volunteers, students and professionals have helped with the construction of our own small deltawork. Thanks to their support our current website covers over 1400+ pages illustrated with over 2000+ multimedia items.

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William the Silent – Willem van Oranje

William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Dutch: Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Dutch: Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He was born into the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the Orange-Nassau branch and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, he is also known as Father of the Fatherland (Dutch: Vader des Vaderlands).

A wealthy nobleman, William originally served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Unhappy with the centralisation of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish. Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard (also written as “Gerardts”) in Delft in 1584.

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Canon van Nederland – Canon of Dutch History

English: is bedoeld voor alle geïnteresseerden in de Nederlandse cultuur en geschiedenis, en in het bijzonder voor leerlingen en docenten in midden- en bovenbouw basisonderwijs en onderbouw voortgezet onderwijs.

Geschiedenis van deze site
Deze website is ontwikkeld in opdracht van stichting en het Nederlands Openluchtmuseum. In 2006 werd de eerste versie van de website gepresenteerd door de commissie Ontwikkeling Nederlandse Canon en ondergebracht bij stichting Sinds 2014 wordt de website beheerd door het Nederlands Openluchtmuseum. In 2020 is de Canon van Nederland herijkt door de commissie Kennedy. Bij die gelegenheid is hernoemd in

Het Kofschip or The history of the Koff

The t kofschip (Dutch pronunciation: [ət ˈkɔfsxɪp], the merchant-ship), t fokschaap (the breeding sheep) or (among foreign language learners) soft ketchup rule is a mnemonic that determines the endings of a regular Dutch verb in the past indicative/subjunctive and the ending of the past participle. This rule should not be confused with the so-called T-rules (t-regels).

The history of the Koff

A koff is a historical type of sailing vessel that was used for coastal shipping off Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany in the 18th and 19th centuries. A typical koff had one and a half masts with a gaff rigged main sail and spanker and one or two square sails in the main top. The hull was plump with a flat bottom and a heavily rounded, raised bow and stern. Smaller koffs could be equipped with leeboards. Due to the shallow draught, koffs were especially suited for inshore shipping in shallow waters.

The koff had been developed in the late 17th century in the Netherlands. Smaller than the fluyt, its rounded bow and stern provided however for more storage on board. This made it a popular type that saw increasing service.

Koffs were often counted among the galiots by contemporary sources because the differences are very subtle: the galiot was considered more slender and therefore more elegant. On the koff, a deckhouse could be installed between the two masts which would provide shelter for up to twelve crew men. The typical dimensions have been reported as “80 feet long, 21 feet wide and 11 feet deep”. Later versions could have a schooner or galeas rig.

Wat is een kofschip?

Als we het over een echt kofschip hebben, bedoelen we eigenlijk een kof. Een kofschip is een zeeschip met een brede achtersteven. Een kofschip gaat niet snel en is geschikt voor de oceaan.

Een kofschip was oorspronkelijk een zeilschip van ca. 12 meter lang voor kust- en binnenvaart. Het leek veel op een smak en had een ronde voor- en achtersteven, een platte bodem en zwaarden. Het schip voerde meestal twee masten. Na 1735 kwam er een versie voor dieper water, met een scherper voor- en achterschip, en zonder zwaarden. Dit type werd wel een schoenerkof genoemd.

Een typisch kenmerk van de kof is het geveegd onderwaterschip, iets wat direct terug te voeren is op de scheepstypes kogge en ewers. Ook had zij meer zeeg. Grote koffen, tot circa 28 meter, hadden een bezaansmast achter de roef. Zij werden hoofdzakelijk gebruikt voor de handel op landen rond de Oostzee en haalden daar onder andere graan, vis en hout. Deze lading werd verkocht tot in het zuiden van Frankrijk, en daar werd veelal wijn als retourvracht ingenomen. Er zijn ook overtochten bekend naar Noord-Amerika.

Het woord is bekend van het taalkundige ezelsbruggetje ‘t Kofschip.

Taking the integration exam

Practicing the integration exam
There are practice exams for the integration exam and for the Dutch as a Second Language state exam (NT2).

Practice exams for Integration exam
DUO has practice exams for Writing, Speaking, Listening, Reading and Knowledge of Dutch Society. These give you the chance to practice before the real exam. Click on one of the exams for the practice exam

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